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Animal Diseases

There are infectious and invasive diseases common to humans and animals, humans become infected by contact with sick animals, and as a result of eating meat from sick animals, contaminated water and through blood-sucking insects and ticks.

anthrax – An acute febrile illness of domestic, wild animals and people. It is caused by an aerobic bacillus, which forms capsules in the animal’s body, and spores outside it. The causative agent of the disease can spread with water contaminated with infected sewage from tanneries, wool washers and other enterprises that process animal feed, as well as with animal feed. Infection of people occurs when removing and processing the skin, through bloodsuckers, etc. A person most often gets sick with a skin form. In this case, it is infected through cracks, abrasions and other injuries of the skin of the hands, face and other open parts of the body. With this form, a bluish-red nodule is formed at the site of the introduction of the bacillus, then turning into a dark red vesicle containing a reddish liquid. After some time, the bubble bursts, the tissue where it was located is dead, and the same nodules and vesicles appear nearby. The whole process is accompanied by high temperature.

Thoroughly conducting general veterinary and sanitary measures in the fields, as well as observing personal hygiene rules, are reliable protection against anthrax.

Rabies  is an acute infectious disease. When animal bites are required to visit a doctor for special events for vaccination against rabies. In case of untimely treatment, a fatal outcome occurs in a hundred cases out of a hundred. Dogs living for a long time in cottages, and dogs of hunting breeds should be vaccinated against rabies. Acute infectious disease. It is caused by a neurotropic virus that is invisible under a normal microscope and is transmitted from a sick animal to a healthy one with saliva during bites. People are sick, pets, including a bird. The latent period of the disease is from 10 days to 1 year. Its duration depends on the remoteness of the bite from the central nervous system and the nature of the wound.

A characteristic sign of rabies in animals is shyness or a pronounced irritability of the animal, reaching a riot. Sick dogs, cats, and other animals without sufficient reason rush at people and animals, bite, eat inedible objects, tear their skin, tend to run away. Dogs have hoarse barking, cramps, difficulty swallowing, followed by complete paralysis of swallowing and chewing muscles, a shaky gait, paralysis of the hind limbs, and fear of water. Death occurs in 4-6 days. With a quiet form of rabies, animals cannot swallow food. General paralysis develops, leading to death.

Rabies control measures:

– to isolate or destroy sick and suspected animals;

– keep corpses out of the reach of animals (especially for rodents) until the arrival of veterinarians, but not more than 2 days, after which they should be buried in a cattle cemetery to a depth of at least 2 m;

– disinfect infected areas with a 2% solution of formalin or caustic soda or boiling water; wash clothes, stained with saliva of a sick animal, boil and iron with a hot iron;

– send all bitten people to the nearest sanitary-epidemiological station or medical institution for vaccinations against rabies.

Brucellosis – a  disease of domestic and wild animals: wolf, fox, hare; birds: sparrows, pigeons, pheasants, etc. A person most often becomes infected by eating the meat of an infected animal. Observe hygiene rules. In case of illness, consult a doctor. Brucellosis is a chronic disease, the causative agent of brucellosis is a small, motionless rod visible under a microscope. It remains viable for a long time. Symptoms: fever up to 40 degrees, fever, which in some cases returns many times.

Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene when opening and cutting carcasses of animals prevents infection.

Tularemia  is an infectious disease. Most often, rodents, fur animals are sick. An aerobic disease that is visible under a light microscope causes a stationary bacterium. Infection occurs through contact, through the digestive or respiratory tract, and in the warm season through blood-sucking insects. Hunters become infected when visiting dysfunctional reservoirs, marshes and meadows; when spending the night in infected haystacks, straw; when cutting carcasses of harvested sick animals. The causative agent of the disease can penetrate the human body while swimming in a pond, even through intact skin and mucous membranes of the eyes. The latent period of the disease is short.

Prevention – hygiene. The disease is prevented by extermination of mouse-like rodents and parasitic arthropods, vaccination of hunters and other people visiting dysfunctional areas, the use of boiled water only, protection of wells from rodents, disinfection of skins and carcasses.

Consulting a doctor in case of infection is mandatory.

Ornithosis or psittacosis – an infectious disease of domestic, wild birds and humans. Chickens, pheasants, ducks, pigeons, gulls, parrots, etc. are sick from birds. It is caused by a filtering virus. The disease virus dies after 15 minutes at a temperature of 65-70 degrees, it remains on ice for up to 2 months, is resistant to drying. Dies in a 3% solution of chloramine after 3 hours. The disease often has a hidden course, and therefore healthy-looking birds can be a source of dispersion of the causative agent of this disease in nature. Birds become infected when healthy people come into contact with sick people, through contaminated food and air, in which there are small particles of infected feces, urine, feathers, nasal discharge, etc. People can get sick with post-slaughter processing of birds – plucking feathers and cutting carcasses, begins with chills and weakness, accompanied by headache and joint pain.

Toxoplasmosis  is a disease of wild and domestic animals, and is transmitted to humans. The disease causes a massive death of animals. Identified and eliminated with the help of medical and veterinary services. It has acquired great epidemiological and epizootic significance, since it has been established that in mammals, birds, and humans, one common causative agent is the parasitic protozoan visible under the microscope – toxoplasma. Toxoplasmosis belongs to the group of diseases with natural foci. A person can become infected from both humans and animals.

In naturally infected animals, the central nervous system and peripheral nerves are affected mainly. The disease usually occurs in the form of a massive disease of animals with significant mortality, mainly young animals. In dogs, depression of the general condition, exhaustion, weakness, outflow from the eyes and nose, pallor of the visible mucous membranes, coughing, vomiting, shortness of breath, fever and a disorder of the central nervous system are observed. Carriage of toxoplasma among people is widespread. Clinically healthy carriers may produce children with toxoplasmosis. In some cases, toxoplasmas cause serious illness in adults.

The transmission of the pathogen from one organism to another occurs in various ways: in utero, through contact with patients or the environment, through the digestive and respiratory tracts, sexually. Contagious are sputum, saliva, vomit, urine, feces, milk, meat. Toxoplasma is mechanically transmitted by arthropods. Flies, for example, after 2 hours can burp away invasive material that they have captured, which does not lose infectivity, and in the body of the bug the infectivity does not lose up to 5 hours. Some ticks are carriers of the toxoplasmosis pathogen. The clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis in humans are extremely diverse.

Toxoplasmosis must be detected and eliminated in a timely manner with the help of medical and veterinary organs. Do not feed raw dogs, cats, internal organs of animals, head and other offal, as they can be a source of infection.

Ringworm  is a fungal infection of the skin. Infection of a person occurs, as a rule, from dogs and cats, often domestic ones. A compulsory visit to a veterinary clinic for pets and a visit to a doctor for a person.

Ringworm in dogs is caused by two types of fungus: trichophytone and microsporon. The skin of the head, neck, limbs is affected. Usually, limited, dense, painful when pressed, dark-colored and almost without hair elevations form on the skin of the head and cheeks. When pressed from the mouth of the hair sacs, pus is secreted. Untimely treatment leads to the formation of bald patches. With trichophytosis, the lesions of the skin are much smaller and more numerous, often merge.

Fascioliasis  is a hepatic-helminthic disease of deer, moose, hares, beavers, nutria, squirrels and cattle. The intermediate host of the pathogen fascioliasis is a freshwater mollusk. Parasites are localized in the bile ducts of the liver, less often in lung cysts; eggs are secreted from the liver with bile into the intestinal canal, and from there along with feces to the outside. Parasites that have entered the bile ducts of the liver cause inflammation there.

Treatment is required.

Dicroceliosis

Hepatic helminthic disease of moose, deer, roe deer, bears, hares, beavers, nutria, sheep, goats, cattle and humans. Distributed everywhere. The intermediate hosts of the causative agent of the disease are terrestrial or land mollusks, and some species of ants are additional. The causative agent of the disease is a small spear-shaped trematode, parasitizes in the bile ducts.

Leptospirosis is a disease that is very common in animals and is quite dangerous for humans. Propagating in the blood, the viruses of this disease affect many internal organs, especially like to “nest” in the kidneys and liver. Leptospira penetrate the human body through the affected areas of the body: cuts and wounds, as well as through the mucous membranes. Usually they are infected not from the animal itself, but from its feces and urine, but the virus can also be picked up by bathing in a dirty pond, for example, where ducks live.

Trichinosis.  The disease is caused by a small parasitic worm – Trichinella. Its size is 3-4 mm.

The main carrier of Trichinella is wild boar, but dogs, pigs, cats, foxes, martens, choruses, lynxes, bears, moles and others can also get sick. People and animals become infected by eating meat containing parasite larvae. Signs of the disease appear in the first hours: upset stomach, nausea, belching, vomiting, pain in the intestines, headache, feeling of heaviness in the limbs, weakness, fever; by 9-10 days, the temperature reaches 40-41 degrees, the face and eyelids swell, the muscles become hard and painful. When infected with a large number of larvae, death may occur as a result of respiratory paralysis or pneumonia. However, in most cases, human trichinosis flows chronically. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of a doctor.

Salting and smoking of meat does not lead to the death of trichinella, and they can be stored in it for a very long time. In practice, trichinosis meat is subjected to technical disposal or burning.

All carcasses of pigs, wild boars and bears should be inspected by veterinarians in order to detect trichinella and to prevent the consumption of infected meat.

Echinococcosis  is a helminth disease. Caused by the larval stage of helminth (cestode). Its ribbon form parasitizes in the small intestine of animals (dogs, wolves, foxes). Larval – more often in the liver, lungs, less often in other organs in all farm animals and humans. As a result, echinococcal blisters develop and a serious illness occurs, often ending in death.

Human infection comes from contact with sick animals. The disease is very dangerous, as a rule, the liver is affected. Treatment under the supervision of a physician.

Echinococcosis is common where there is no struggle with stray dogs, where there is no cleaning of the corpses of dead animals and dogs are fed internal organs affected by the bladder stage of echinococcus. Infected dogs, in constant contact with humans and domestic mammals, easily spread the causative agents of this disease to humans and animals.

Diphyllobothriasis  – caused by helminth wide tape, reaching a length of 8-12 meters and a width of 2 cm. Dogs, foxes, wolves and other carnivores are sick. A person becomes infected as a result of contact with sick animals or from poorly fried meat of infected fish: pike, perch, burbot, ruff, trout, etc.

Opisthorchiasis  is an invasive disease caused by a parasite living in the liver or pancreas. Infection occurs by eating raw fish. The carriers of the larvae of this disease are fish of the cyprinid family: ide, common carp, bream, roach, dace, tench, podust, asp, silver bream, rudd, gudgeon, carp. Opisthorchiasis larvae do not occur in salmon and sturgeon fish. Any fish must be well-fried, to a dark brown crust, or boiled until the lens of the eye is whitened.

Make sure that when cutting fish, small, raw pieces do not get into the mouth.

Rinse your hands with water often while cutting fish.

At a temperature of minus 15 degrees, the fish is disinfected during the day.

When salted, the fish is disinfected for 14-15 days, followed by soaking, under oppression, the exposure time is reduced to 3-4 days.

Tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease of domestic, wild animals and humans. It is caused by an acid-resistant bacillus visible under a microscope of three types: human, cattle and avian. Each of them is most dangerous for its owner, but can cause disease in others.

The source of human infection is sick animals, products of animal origin and the external environment infected with sick animals, as well as sick people and the air infected with them, surrounding objects, etc. They get sick with various forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, tuberculosis of bones and joints, peripheral glands, skin, serous membranes of the larynx, intestines, genitourinary and other organs, and tuberculous meningitis.

In order to prevent tuberculosis, products obtained from animals with signs of exhaustion, weakening of the body should be eaten only after they have been checked by a veterinarian.

Foot and mouth disease is a viral disease of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, moose, deer, bison, roe deer, wild boars and other artiodactyl ruminants, sometimes cats, dogs, poultry, horses. People get sick less often.

The disease in humans begins, as a rule, acutely, with chills and fever. There is soreness of the oral mucosa, lips, profuse salivation.

To protect against the disease, you should not drink raw milk. It is necessary to observe the rules of personal hygiene.

Felinosis  is a cat scratch disease. Infection occurs through the saliva of a sick kitten (adult cats in most cases have strong immunity to the pathogen). The disease manifests itself in redness of the lesion site and in a very unpleasant and painful enlargement of the lymph nodes. Usually patients do without treatment, transferring discomfort for a month. Prevention of felinosis, unfortunately, does not exist.

Salmonellosis  is a hazard to the human digestive system. Frequent inhabitants of the human home are a variety of rodents: mice, decorative rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, chinchillas can be carriers of it. Signs of it in animals: loss of appetite, weight loss, conjunctivitis, sudden death. Prevention is hand washing with antibacterial soap and periodic disinfection of cells.

Listeriosis  is a widespread disease among rodents and transmitted to humans. Infection occurs through infected food, by airborne droplets and through external parasites. A characteristic external sign of listeriosis is an imbalance during the movement of the animal. Treatment is carried out only by a doctor.

The most common diseases of domestic animals  and their prevention

Rabies, leptosperosis – the most reliable and effective way to combat these diseases – vaccination. In Russia today the vaccine market is very large, the veterinarian will help you choose the right one.

Helminthiasis, in other words worms – parasitic worms. Unfortunately, oddly enough, but every second pet, regardless of its type, is infected with helminths, and can infect humans. Breeding in the body of an animal and a human, these worms infect almost all internal organs. As a preventative measure, take anthelmintic drugs 2 times a year. Animals need to drive off worms not only before vaccination, but also every 3 months, preferably on the same day as the hosts.

Toxoplasmosis –  more often observed in cats. Other animals are immune to this virus. According to the statistics of veterinarians, every fifth domestic cat in Russia is infected with this virus. She usually gets it when fed with raw meat obtained from infected pigs and calves. Toxoplasmosis can be infected through urine, feces and mucous discharge in a cat. A very dangerous disease for pregnant women.

A domestic cat should be regularly examined for toxoplasmosis in a veterinary clinic: currently there are both diagnostic methods and treatment methods for domestic animals, which significantly reduce the risk of developing toxoplasmosis.

In addition to the cat, pregnant women are obligatory, and the rest, if possible, should not eat suspicious whitewash or barbecue in street tents, taste minced meat and eat unwashed vegetables or fruits, otherwise the cat is not for you, but for the cat you will pose a serious danger.

Depriving a healthy person with good immunity is practically not dangerous. Seeking qualified help, is cured within a week. However, for young children it can have serious consequences.

Fleas , which, through a bite, carry helminths and various dangerous viral diseases into the human body. Flea larvae can be stored in the apartment for several months, so regularly treat not only animals but also the entire apartment, the range of such drugs is also quite extensive.

Ticks also belong to the group of parasites of your pets. They can be picked up anywhere, including courtyards, streets, parks. You can also protect yourself from them by special means.

Since it is difficult to detect a bird infected with ornithosis during the purchase, it is necessary to make this purchase in places controlled by the wind services.

Fish – creatures are gentle and often suffer from various infections. The threat to humans is not the fish themselves, but the water from the aquarium – it can contain pathogens of skin infections, and any wound on the skin can become a gateway for the penetration of pathogens. In addition, an allergy to food, in particular to daphnia, often occurs.

Take care of yourself and your pets and take care of their health in every way, regularly visit a veterinarian, give your animals all the necessary preventive vaccinations against dangerous diseases, use various antiparasitic drugs such as drops, shampoos, sprays, collars, etc. Observe safety measures when you and your animals eat meat and fish products.

Observe hygiene: frequent wet cleaning with periodic use of disinfectants, the use of rubber gloves when treating cat and dog trays, the use of a separate scoop to remove stool, frequent washing of hands. All this will help reduce the likelihood of infection.

Do not forget that the prevention of dangerous zooanthroponosis is completely in your hands.

 

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